Nuclear DNA (nDNA)

The nuclear genome...


Nuclear-mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTS)

NUMTS are copies of mitochondrial genes that have been translocated to the nuclear genome. After insertion into the nuclear genome, NUMTS may be fragmented and/or duplicated. When mistaken for authentic mitochondrial genes, NUMTS may mislead phylogenetic inferences (Nacer & do Amaral, 2017). On the other hand, comparisons of known nuclear NUMTS may help clarifying phylogenetic relationships. 


Bensasson D, Zhang DX, Hartl DL, and Hewitt GM (2001), Mitochondrial pseudogenes: evolution‘s misplaced witnesses, Trends Ecol. Evol. 16, 314-321. (abstract)

Bonnet T, Leblois L, Rousset F, and Crochet PA (2017), A reassessment of explanations for discordant introgressions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, Evolution 71, 2140-58. (abstract)

Hanna ZR, Henderson JB, Sellas AB, Fuchs J, Bowie RCK, and Dumbacher JP (2017), Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) and the barred owl (Strix varia; Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae) confirm the presence of a duplicated control region, PeerJ 5, e:3901. (pdf)

Hazkani-Covo E, Zeller RM, and Martin W (2010), Molecular poltergeists: mitochondrial DNA copies (numts) in sequenced nuclear genomes, PLoS Genet. 6, e:1000834. (pdf)

Kriegs JO, Matzke A, Churakov G, Kuritzin A, Mayr G, Brosius J, and Schmitz J (2007), Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds, BMC Evol. Biol. 7, e:190. (pdf)

Liang B, Wang N, Li N, Kimball RT, and Braun EL (2018), Comparative genomics reveals a burst of homoplasy-free Numt insertions, MolBiolEvol. 35, 2060-64. (free pdf)

Lucas T, Vincent B, and Eric P (2022), Translocation of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome blurs phylogeographic and conservation genetic studies in seabirds, R. Soc. open Sci. 9, e:211888. (pdf)

Nacer DF, and do Amaral FP (2017), Striking pseudogenization in avian phylogenetics: numts are large and common in falcons, MolPhylogenetEvol. 115, 1-6. (free pdf)

Toews DPL, and Brelsford A (2012)  The biogeography of mitochondrial and nuclear discordance in animals, Mol. Ecol. 21, 3906-30. (pdf)