This order is represented only by the Threskiornithidae (ibises). The phylogenetic affinities among ibises are largely unresolved. 


Timetree of Threskiornithidae based on Ramirez et al. (2013), with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). 



Chesser, R.T., C.K.L. Yeung, C.-T. Yao, X.-H. Tian, and S.-H. Li (2010), Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on

mitochondrial DNA, Zootaxa 2603, 53-60. DOI: 10.11646.zootaxa.2603.1.2. (abstract)

Kim, G., K.C. Jeong, E.H. Choi, S.H. Ryu, Y.J. Lim, J. Jun, Y.-S. Lee, and U.W. Hwang (2019), The complete mitochondrial genome of an Asian crested ibis,

Nipponia nippon (Pelecaniformes, Threskiornithidae) from South Korea. Mitochondrial DNA, Part B. 4(2), 2740-2750. DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2019.1680321. (pdf)

Ramirez, J.L., C.Y. Miyaki, and S.N. Del Lama (2013), Molecular phylogeny of Threskiornithidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial

DNA, Genet. Mol. Res. 12(3), 2740-2750. DOI: 10.4238/2013.July.30.11. (pdf)

Ramirez, J.L., C.Y. Miyaki, P.C. Frederick, and S.N. Del Lama (2014), Species delimitation in the genus Eudocimus (Threskiornithidae: Pelecaniformes): first

genetic approach, Waterbirds 37(4), 419-425. DOI: . (abstract)


Hadada Ibis (Bostrychia hagedash),

Northern Bald-Ibis, Hermit Ibis, or Waldrapp (Geronticus eremita)

 Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), (Foto: Mary Yalda)

 Madagascan Ibis (Lophotibis cristata)