This order comprises only the Spheniscidae (penguins).
Timetree of Spheniscidae based on Fernandes et al. (2019) and Pan et al. (2019), with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code).
Cole, T.L., N.J. Rawlence, N. Dussex, et al. (2019), Ancient DNA of crested penguins: testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world´s most diverse penguine
clade. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 131, 72-79. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev2018.10.025.
Cole, T.L., D.T. Ksepka, K.J. Mitchell, A.J.D. Tennyson, D.B. Thomas, H. Pan, G. Zhang, N.J. Rawlence, J.R. Wood, P. Bover, J.L. Bouzat, A. Cooper, S.R.
Fiddaman, T. Hart, G. Miller, P.G. Ryan, L.D. Shepherd, J.M. Wilmshurst, and J.M.Waters (2019), Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 36(4), 784-797. DOI:10.1093/molbev./msz017. (abstract)
Fernandes, F.A.N. (2019), Evolutionary and biogeographic history of the extant penguins (Aves: Spheniscidae) using genomic data, Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Campinas. (pdf)
Pan, H., T.L. Cole, X. Bi, et al. (2019), High-coverage genomes to elucidate the evolution of penguins. GigaScience 8, 1-17. DOI: