Timetree of extant Gruimorphae based on Jarvis et al. (2014), Prum et al. (2015), and Kuhl et al. (2021), with the distribution being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code).
Jarvis ED, Mirarab S, Aberer AA, et al. (2014), Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in
the tree of life of modern birds, Science 346, 1320-1331. (pdf)
Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38 (1), 108-127. (pdf)
Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, and Lemmon AR (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-573. (abstract)