Timetree of Gruimorphae based on Jarvis et al. (2014), Prum et al. (2015), and Kuhl et al. (2021), with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code).
Jarvis, E.D., S. Mirarab, A.A. Aberer, et al. (2014), Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds, Science 346, 1320-1331.
Kuhl, H., C. Frankl-Vilches, A. Bakker, G. Mayr, G. Nikolaus, S.T. Boerno, S. Klages, B. Timmermann, and M. Gahr (2021), An unbiased molecular approach
using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38(1), 108-127. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msaa191. (pdf)
Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using
targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-573. (abstract)