CHARADRIIMORPHAE: Charadriiformes

The order Charadriiformes is conservatively divided here into three suborders. Note, however, that sometimes Scolopacidae, Turnicidae and the clade comprising Chionidae + Pluvianellidae + Burhinidae are treated as suborders Scolopaci, Turnici, and Chionidi, respectively. 

 Scolopaci:

- Jacanidae (Jacanas) 

- Rostratulidae (Painted-snipes)

- Thinocoridae (Seedsnipes)

- Pedionomidae (Plains-wanderer)

- Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes)

Lari:

- Stercorariidae (Skuas, Jaegers) 

- Alcidae (Auks)

- Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)

- Dromadidae (Crab Plover)

- Glareolidae (Coursers, Pratincoles)

- Turnicidae (Buttonquail)

Charadrii:

- Ibidorhynchidae (Ibisbill) 

- Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)

- Recurvirostridae (Stilts, Avocets)

- Pluvialidae (Golden-Plovers)

- Charadridae (Plovers, Dotterels)

- Pluvianidae (Egyptian Plover)

- Chionidae (Sheathbills)

- Pluvianellidae (Magellanic Plover)

- Burhinidae (Thick-knees)

 


Timetree of Charadriiformes, with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). The phylogeny is based on Ericson et al. (2003), Paton et al. (2003), Bridge et al. (2005), Paton & Baker (2006), Fain & Houde, (2007), Baker et al. (2007, 2012), Gibson & Baker (2012), Dos Remedios et al. (2015) and Prum et al. (2015). The position of monotypic Dromadidae is based on Pereira & Baker (2010). 

 

 

Timetree of Charadrii, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). The timetree is based on Paton et al. (2003), Baker et al. (2007), and Barth et al. (2013). However, the backbone of the timing is based on Prum et al. (2015), whose divergence times are significantly younger than those of the other authors. The additional divergence times given by these authors were adjusted accordingly. 

References

Baker, A.J., S.L. Pereira, and T.A. Paton (2007), Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multiple evidence for the

Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds, Biol. Lett. 3, 205-209. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0606. (abstract)

Baker, A.J., and S.L. Pereira (2009), Shorebirds (Charadriiformes), in "The timetree of life", (Hedges, S.B. & Kumar, S., eds.), Oxford University Press, pp.

432-435. (pdf)

Baker, A.J., Y. Yatsenko, and E.S. Tavares (2012), Eight independent nuclear genes support monophyly of the Plovers: the role of mutational variance in gene

trees, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65, 631-641. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.018. (abstract)

 

Banks, R.C. (2012), Classification and nomenclature of the Sandpipers (Aves: Arenariinae), Zootaxa. 3513, 86-88.DOI:

10.11646/Zootaxa.3513.1.6. (abstract)

 

Barth, J.M.I., M. Matschiner, and B.C. Robertson (2013), Phylogenetic position and subspecies divergence of the endangered New Zealand Dotterel

(Charadrius obscurus), PLoS ONE 8, e78068. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078068. (pdf) 

Bridge, E.S., A.W. Jones, and A.J. Baker (2005), A phylogenetic framework for the terns (Sternini) inferred from mtDNA sequences: implications for

taxonomy and plumage evolution, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 35, 459-469. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.010. 
(abstract)

Chen, W., C. Zhang, T. Pan, W. Liu, K. Li, C. Hu, and Q. Chang (2018), The mitochondrial genome of the Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus

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Chen, W., W. Liu, C. Zhang, K. Li, C. Hu, and Q. Chang (2018), The mitochondrial genome of the red-necked stint Calidris ruficollis (Charadriiformes,

Scolopacidae), Conserv. Genet. Resour. 11(2), 181-184(abstract)

 

Cohen, C. (2011), "The phylogenetics, taxonomy and biogeography of African arid Zone terrestrial birds: the bustards (Otididae), sandgrouse (Pteroclidae),

coursers (Glareolidae) and Stone Partridge (Ptilopachus)", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of  Cape Town(abstract)

 

 

Cracraft, J., F.K. Barker, M. Braun, J. Harshman, G.J. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. Garcia-Moreno, M.D. Sorenson,

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DiGiacomo, A.A. (2018), "A phylogenetic analysis of extinct and extant Pan-Alcidae", Ph.D. Dissertation at the Montclair State University, New

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Ericson, P.G.P., I. Envall, M. Irestedt, and J.A. Norman (2003), Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA

sequence data, BMC Evol. Biol. 3, 16. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-3-16. (pdf)

Fain, M.G., and P. Houde (2007), Multilocus perspectives on the monophyly and phylogeny of the order Charadriiformes, BMC Evol. Biol. 7, 35. DOI:

10.1186/1471-2148-7-35. (pdf)

Gibson, R. and A. Baker (2012), Multiple gene sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships in the shorebird suborder Scolopaci (Aves: Charadriiformes),

Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64, 66-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.03.008. (abstract) 

Hu, C. C. Zhang, l. Sun, Y. Zhang, W. Xie, B. Zhang, and Q. Chang (2017), The mitochondrial genome of the pin-tailed snipe Gallinago stenura, and its

implications for the phylogeny of Charadriiformes, PloS ONE 12(4), e0175244. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175244. (pdf)

Jackson, D.G, S.D. Emslie, and M. van Tuinen (2012), Genome skimming identifies polymorphism in tern populations and species, BMC Research Notes 5,

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Liu, W., C. Hu, W. Xie, P. Chen, Y. Zhang, R. Yao, K. Li, and Q. Chang (2018), The mitochondrial genome of red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus

(Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) and phylogeny analysis among Scolopacidae, Genes & Genomics 40(5), 455-463. (abstract)

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