November 24, 2020

Appendix 3: „Forgotten clades“:  I added this chapter hoping to direct future research efforts towards some selected clades that have largely been neglected in phylogenetic studies.

November 21, 2020

Strisores: Following Chen & Field (2020), I added the newly coined clade names Letornithes and Sedentaves to the taxonomy of Strisores. However, I will not follow their suggestions for panclade names. (Please refer the Appendix 2 for further information).

November 15, 2020

Appendix 1: „Avian orders“:  I added this new chapter hoping to launch a discussion on the question: What is an avian order?

November 3, 2020

Palaeognathae: I decided to adopt the phylogeny of Kuhl et al. (2020). However, it should be noted that the reconstruction of the phylogeny of Palaeognathae remains problematic. I guess this is due to the fact that, apart from their neognathous sister-group, relevant outgroups diverged a long time ago, e.g. turtles some 170mya and crocodiles some 150mya. 

October 24, 2020

Higher phylogeny: I decided to adopt the avian phylogeny of Kuhl at al. (2020), because of the broad taxonomic coverage (all 106 non-passerine and 115 passerine families) and the conclusive results. They found that 3’UTR sequences yielded a well-resolved and stable tree-topology. Their results confirm most previous assumptions.