Higher phylogeny

Modern birds, or pan-Aves, originated some 94 million years ago (Ma), when Palaeognathae and Neognathae diverged from each another. The main radiations within Neognathae occurred at 65 Ma, following the Chicxulub asteroid impact on the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico at 66 Ma. The bolide sealed the demise of non-avian dinosaurs. 

Traditional order-level timetree of extant Aves according to Kuhl et al. (2021). Crown-group ages, indicated by blue lines, were derived from Kuhl et al. (2021, fig.3). The clade name „Passerea“, which has been introduced by Jarvis et al. (2014), originally had a slightly different meaning and did not include Columbiformes, Mesitornithiformes, and Pterocliformes. It should be noted, however, that slightly alternative phylogenies have been proposed (summarised by Braun & Kimball, 2021 and Bravo et al., 2021). 


References/Literature

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Bravo GA, Schmitt CJ, and Edwards SV (2021), What have we learned from the first 500 avian genomes? Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 52, 611-639. (abstract)


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