This order comprises the following four families: 

  • Upupidae (hoopoes)
  • Phoeniculidae (Wood hoopoes and scimitarbills)
  • Bucorvidae (Ground hornbills)
  • Bucerotidae (hornbills)


Genus-level phylogeny of extant Bucerotiformes based on Gonzalez et al. (2013) and Tamashiro et al. (2019). The distribution of each family is indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). 


Gonzalez JCT, Sheldon BC, Collar NJ, and Tobias JA (2013), A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 67, 468-483. (abstract) (corrigendum)


Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 108-127. (pdf)


Tamashiro RA, White NE, Braun MJ, Faircloth BC, Braun EL, and Kimball RE (2019), What are the roles of taxon sampling and model fit in tests of cyto-nuclear discordance using avian mitogenomic data?, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130, 132-144. (abstract, open manuscript)