This order comprises the following four families: 

  • Upupidae (hoopoes)
  • Phoeniculidae (Wood hoopoes and scimitarbills)
  • Bucorvidae (Ground hornbills)
  • Bucerotidae (hornbills)


Phylogeny of Bucerotiformes based on Gonzalez et al. (2013) and Tamashiro et al. (2019). The distribution of each family is indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). 


Gonzalez, J.-C.T., B.C. Sheldon, N.J. Collar, and J.A. Tobias (2013), A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae), Mol.

Phylogenet. Evol. 67, 468-483. (abstract)

Kuhl, H., C. Frankl-Vilches, A. Bakker, G. Mayr, G. Nikolaus, S.T. Boerno, S. Klages, B. Timmermann, and M. Gahr (2021), An unbiased molecular approach

using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38 (1), 108-127. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msaa191. (pdf)

Tamashiro, R.A., N.E. White, M.J. Braun, B.C. Faircloth, E.L. Braun and R.E. Kimball (2019), What are the roles of taxon sampling and model fit in tests of

cyto-nuclear discordance using avian mitogenomic data?, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130, 132-144. (abstract)


Writhed Hornbill, (Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus),

Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax)

Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax)