Traditionally, this order comprises only a single family, Falconidae (falcons, carcaras). 


Timetree of Falconidae based on Fuchs et al. (2015) and Oswald et al. (2019), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). The divergence times of subfamilies follow Kuhl et al. (2021).  


Fuchs, J., J.A. Johnson, and D.P. Mindell (2012), Molecular systematics of the caracaras and allies (Falconidae: Polyborinae) inferred from mitochondrial and

nuclear sequence data, Ibis 154, 520-532. (abstract)

Fuchs, J., J.A. Johnson, and D.P. Mindell (2015), Rapid diversification of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) due to expansion of open habitats in the Late Miocene,

Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 82, 166-182. (abstract)

Griffiths, C.S., G.F. Barrowclough, J.G. Groth and L.A. Mertz (2004), Phylogeny of the Falconidae (Aves): a comparison of the efficacy of morphological,

mitochondrial, and nuclear data, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32, 101-109. (abstract)

Kuhl, H., C. Frankl-Vilches, A. Bakker, G. Mayr, G. Nikolaus, S.T. Boerno, S. Klages, B. Timmermann, and M. Gahr (2021), An unbiased molecular approach

using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38 (1), 108-127. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msaa191. (pdf)

Liu, G., L. Zhou, and G. Zhao (2019), Complete mitochondrial genomes of five raptors and implications for the phylogenetic relationships between owls and

nightjars, PeerJ Preprints, publ: 12 Jan 2019. DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27478v1. (pdf)

Mindell, D.P., J. Fuchs, and J.A. Johnson (2018), Phylogeny, taxonomy, and geographic diversity of diurnal raptors: Falconiformes, Accipitriformes, and

Cathartiformes, In: Sarasola, J.H. et al., Birds of prey, Chapter 1, 3-32. Springer.  (abstract)

Oswald, J.A., J.M. Allen, K.E. Witt, R.A. Folk, N.A. Albury, D.W. Steadman, and R.P. Guralnick (2019), Ancient DNA from a 2,500-year-old Caribbean fossil

places an extinct bird (Caracara creightoni) in a phylogenetic context, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 140:106576. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106576.