The Passeriformes, or perching birds, represent almost two-thirds of all bird species. For this reason, the order is only treated to family-level here: 

Family-level timetree of extant Passeriformes based on Oliveros et al. (2019) and Kuhl et al. (2021), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). In contrast to their treament, however, Lamproliidae are treated here as a separate family rather than a subfamily of Rhipiduridae. Passeri and Tyranni together constitite the Eupasseres. The few differences between the Oliveros et al. (2019) and the Kuhl et al. (2021) trees are indicated by dashed lines. Divergence times follow Kuhl et al. (2021). 


The phylogenetic interrelations among Passerides are outlined in the timetree below:

Family-level timetree of extant Passerides based on Oliveros et al. (2019), and Kuhl et al., (2021), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). The phylogenetic relationships among Sylvioidea have been further detailed by Cai et al. (2019). In contrast to Oliveros et al. (2019), a number of taxa have been upgraded to family status in the above cladogram: Modulatricidae, Cettiidae, Erythrocercidae, Chaetopidae, and Picathartidae. The few differences between the Oliveros et al. (2019) and the Kuhl et al. (2021) trees are indicated by dashed lines. Divergence times follow Kuhl et al. (2021). 


Alström P, Hooper DM, Liu Y, Olsson U, Mohan D, Gelang M, Manh HL, Zhao J, Lei F, and Price TD 2014), Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds, Biol. Lett. 10: 20131067. (pdf)


Alström P, Rheindt FE, Zhang R, Zhao M, Wang J, Zhu X, Gwee CY, Hao Y, Ohlson J, Jia C, Prawiradilaga DM, Ericson PGP, Lei F, and Olsson U (2018), Complete species-level phylogeny of the leaf warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) radiation, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 126, 141-152. (abstract)


Barker FK (2014), Mitogenomic data resolve basal relationships among passeriform and passeridan birds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 79, 313-324. (abstract)


Barker FK (2017), Molecular phylogenetics of the wrens and allies (Passeriformes: Certhioidea), with comments on the relationships of Ferminia, Amer. Mus. Novit. 3887, 27 pp. (pdf)


Cai T, Cibois A, Alström P, Moyle RG, Kennedy JD, Shao S, Zhang R, Irestedt M, Ericson PGP, Gelang M, Qu Y, Lei F, and Fjeldså J (2019), Near-complete phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the world’s babbler (Aves: Passeriformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130, 346-356. (abstract)


Cai T, Wu G, Sun L, Zhang Y, Peng Z, Guo Y, Liu X, Pan T, Chang J, Sun Z, and Zhang B (2021), Biogeography and diversification of Old World buntings (Aves: Emberizidae): radiations in open habitats, J. Avian Biol. 52: e02672. (abstract)


Harvey MG, Bravo GA, Claramunt S, Cuervo AM, Derryberry GE, Battilana J, Seeholzer GF, McKay JS, O'Meara BC, Faircloth BC, Edwards SV, Perez-Eman J, Moyle RG, Sheldon FH, Aleixo A, Smith BT, Chesser RT, Silveira LF, Cracraft J, Brumfield RT, and Derryberry EP (2020), The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot, Science 370, 1343-1348. (abstract)


Jønsson KA, Fabre PH, Kennedy JD, Holt BG, Borregaard MK, Rahbek C, and Fjeldså J (2016), A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 94, 87-94. (abstract)


Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using  3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 108-127. (pdf)


Mackiewicz P, Urantówka AD, Kroczak A, and Mackiewicz D (2019), Resolving phylogenetic relationships within Passeriformes based on mitochondrial genes and inferring the evolution of their mitogenomes in terms of duplications, Genome Biol. Evol. 11, 2824-49. (pdf)


Marki PZ, Jonsson KA, Irestedt M, Nguyen JMT, Rahbek C, and Fjeldsa J (2017) Supermatrix phylogeny and biogeography of the Australasian Meliphagides radiation (Aves: Passeriformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 107, 516-529. (abstract)


Moyle RG, Oliveros CH, Andersen MJ, Hosner PA, Benz BW, Manthey JD, Travers SL, Brown RM, and Faircloth BC (2016), Tectonic collision and uplift of Wallacea triggered the global songbird radiation, Nature Comm. 7: 12709. (pdf)


Oliveros CH, Field DJ, Ksepka DT, Barker KF, Aleixo A, Andersen MJ, Alström P, Benz BW, Braun EL, Braun MJ, Bravo GA, Brumfield RT, Chesser RT,  Claramunt S, Cracraft J, Cuervo AM, Derryberry EP, Glenn TC, Harvey MG, Hosner PA, Joseph L, Kimball RT, Mack AL, Miskelly CM, Peterson AT, Robbins MB, Sheldon FH, Silveira LF, Smith BT, White ND, Moyle RG, and Faircloth BC (2019), Earth history and the passerine superradiation, PNAS 116, 7915-25. (pdf)


Päckert M, Hering J, Ait Belkacem A, Sun YH, Hille S, Lkhagvasuren D, Islam S, and Martens J (2021), A revised multilocus phylogeny of Old World sparrows (Aves: Passeridae), Vertebr. Zool. 71, 353-366. (pdf)


Selvatti AP, Gonzaga LP, de Moraes Russo CA (2015), A Paleogene origin for crown passerines and the diversification of the Oscines in the New World, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 88, 1-15. (pdf)


Selvatti AP, Galvao A, Pereira AG, Gonzaga LP, and de Moraes Russo CA (2017), An African origin of the Eurylaimides (Passeriformes) and the successful diversification of the ground-foraging pittas (Pittidae), Mol. Biol. Evol. 34, 483-499. (pdf)


Slager DL, Battey CJ, Bryson RW, Voelker G, and Klicka J (2014), A multilocus phylogeny of a major New World avian radiation: the Vireonidae, Mol. Biol. Evol. 80, 95-104. (abstract)


Suh A, Bachg S, Donnellan S, Joseph L, Brosius J, Kriegs JO, and Schmitz J (2017), De-novo emergence of SINE retroposons during the early evolution of passerine birds, Mobile DNA 8: 21. (pdf)


Blue-faced Honeyeater (Entomyzon cyanotis), Meliphagidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Montezuma Oropendula (Psarocolius montezuma), Icteridae

White-eared Catbird (Ailuroedus buccoides), Ptilonorhynchidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida), Pittidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), male, Cotingidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae), Estrildidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), Tyrannidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Chestnut-backed Thrush (Geokichla dohertyi), Turdidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Black-and-white Mannikin (Lonchura bicolor), Estrildidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), female, Cotingidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius), Thraupidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis), Thraupidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)