The Passeriformes, or perching birds, represent almost two-thirds of all bird species. For this reason, the order is treated here only to family-level: 

Family-level timetree of extant Passeriformes based on Oliveros et al. (2019), Kuhl et al. (2021) and Stiller at al. (2024), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (Distribution code). In contrast to their treament, however, Lamproliidae are treated here as a separate family rather than a subfamily of Rhipiduridae. Passeri and Tyranni together constitite the Eupasseres. Divergence times follow Stiller et al. (2024). Family-level relationships within Tyranni have been corroborated by the study of Harvey et al. (2020). The phylogenetic placement of Eurocephalus (Eurocephalidae) is corroborated by McCullough et al (2023).


Family-level timetree of extant Passerides based on Oliveros et al. (2019), Kuhl et al. (2021), and Stiller et al. (2024; new placement of Cinclidae and Urocynchramidae), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (Distribution code). The phylogenetic relationships among Sylvioidea have been detailed by Cai et al. (2019). Compared to Oliveros et al. (2019), some taxa have been upgraded to family status: Modulatricidae, Cettiidae, Erythrocercidae, Chaetopidae, and Picathartidae. Divergence times follow Stiller et al. (2024).


Aggerbeck M, Fjeldså J, Christidis L, Fabre PH, and Johnson KA (2014),  Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a Proto-Papuan island origin, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 70, 272-285. (abstract)

Alström P, Ericson PGP, Olsson U, and Sundberg P (2006), Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 38, 381-397. (pdf) 

Alström P, Olsson U, Lei F, Wang HT, and Sundberg P (2008), Phylogeny and classification of the Old World Emberizini (Aves, Passeriformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 47, 960-973. (abstract)

Alström P, Hooper DM, Liu Y, Olsson U, Mohan D, Gelang M, Manh HL, Zhao J, Lei F, and Price TD (2014), Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds, Biol. Lett. 10, e:20131067. (pdf) 

Alström P, Rasmussen PC, Zhao C, Xu J, Dalvi S, Cai T, Guan Y, Zhang R, Kalyakin MV, Lei F, and Olsson U (2016), Integrative taxonomy of the Plain-backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves, Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species, Avian Res. 7, e:1. (free pdf) 

Alström P, Rasmussen PC, Xia C, Gelang M, Liu Y, Chen G, Zhao M, Hao Y, Zhao C, and Zhao J (2018), Taxonomy of the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana) complex on mainland Asia and Taiwan: an integrative approach supports recognition of three instead of one species, Avian Res. 9, 1-13. (free pdf)

Alström P, Rheindt FE, Zhang R, Zhao M, Wang J, Zhu X, Gwee CY, Hao Y, Ohlson J, Jia C, Prawiradilaga DM, Ericson PGP, Lei F, and Olsson U (2018), Complete species-level phylogeny of the leaf warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) radiation, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 126, 141-152. (abstract) 

Alström P, Rasmussen PC, Sangster G, Dalvi S, Round PD, Zhang R, Yao CT, Irestedt M, Manh HL, Lei F, and Olsson U 2020), Multiple species within the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera – Brown Prinia P. polychroma complex revealed through an integrative taxonomic approach, Ibis 162, 936-967. (abstract)

Alström P, Mohammadi Z, Enbody ED, Irestedt M, Engelbrecht D, Crochet PA, Guillaumet A, Rancilhac L, Tieleman BI, Olsson U, Donald PF, and Stervander M (2023), Systematics of the avian family Alaudidae using multilocus and genomic data, Avian Res. 14, e:100095. (view pdf) 

Alström P, Mohammadi Z, Donald PF, Nymark M, Enbody ED, Irestedt M, Elisha EB, Ndithia HK, Tieleman BI, Engelbrecht D, Olsson U, Rancilhac L, and Stervander M (2024), Integrative taxonomy reveals unrecognised species diversity in African Corypha larks (Aves: Alaudidae), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. XX, 1-29. (free pdf)

 Andersen MJ, Naikatini A, and Moyle RG (2014), A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphsgidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 71, 308-315. (abstract)

Arbeláez-Cortés E, Navarro-Sigüenza AG, and García-Moreno J (2012), Phylogeny of woodcreepers of the genus Lepidocolaptes (Aves, Furnariidae), a widespread Neotropical taxon, Zool. Scr. 41, 363-373. (abstract) 

Areta JI, Saldívar MJB, Lentino M, Miranda J, Ferreira M, Klicka J, and Pérez-Emán J (2023), Phylogenetic relationships and systematics of the bamboo-specialist Amaurospiza blue seedeaters, Ibis 165, 844-861. (abstract)

Avendaño JE, Cuervo AM, López-O JP, Gutiérrez-Pinto N, Cortés-Diago A, and Cadena CD (2015), A new species of tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae: Scytalopus) from the Serranía de Perijá of Colombia and Venezuela, Auk 132, 450-466. (free pdf) 

Avendaño JE, Barker FK, and Cadena CD (2016), The Yellow-green Bush-tanager is neither a bush-tanager nor a sparrow: Molecular phylogenetics reveals that Chlorospingus flavovirens is a tanager (Aves: Passeriformes; Thraupidae), Zootaxa 4136, 373-381. (abstract) 

Avendaño JE, Arbeláez-Cortés E, and Cadena CD (2017), On the importance of geographic and taxonomic sampling in phylogeography: A reevaluation of diversification and species limits in a Neotropical thrush (Aves, Turdidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 111, 87-97. (abstract) 

Barani-Beiranvand H, Aliabadian M, Irestedt M, Qu Y, Darvish J, Székely T, van Dijk RE, and Ericson PGP (2017), Phylogeny of penduline tits inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite genotyping, J. Avian Biol. 48, 932-940. (free reading) 

Barber BR, Martinez-Gomez JE, and Peterson AT (2004), Systematic position of the Socorro mockingbird Mimodes graysoni, J. Avian Biol. 35, 195-198. (free reading)

Barker FK, Cibois A, Schikler P, and Cracraft J (2004), Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation, PNAS 101, 11040-45. (pdf)

Barker FK, Burns KJ, Klicka J, Lanyon SM, and Livette IJ (2013), Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds, Syst. Biol. 62, 298-320. (free pdf)

Barker FK (2014), Mitogenomic data resolve basal relationships among passeriform and passeridan birds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 79, 313-324. (abstract) 

Barker FK, Burns KJ, Klicka J, Lanyon SM, and Lovette IJ (2015), New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies, Auk 132, 333-348. (free pdf)

Barker FK (2017), Molecular phylogenetics of the wrens and allies (Passeriformes: Certhioidea), with comments on the relationships of Ferminia, Amer. Mus. Novit. 3887, 27 pp. (pdf) 

Batalha-Filho H, Pessoa RO, Fabre PH, Fjeldså J, Irestedt M, Ericson PGP, Silveira LF, and Miyaki CY (2014), Phylogeny and historical biogeography of gnateaters (Passeriformes, Conopophagidae) in the South America forests, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 79, 422-432. (abstract)

Batista R, Olsson U, Andermann T, Aleixo A, Ribas CC, and Antonelli A (2020), Phylogenomics and biogeography of the world’s thrushes (Aves, Turdus): new evidence for a more parsimonious evolutionary history, Proc. R. Soc. B 287, e:20192400. (pdf) 

Beckman EJ, and Witt CC (2015), Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: Rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 87, 28-45. (abstract)

Beresford P, Barker FK, Ryan PG, and Crowe TM (2005), African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’, Proc. R. Soc. B 272, 849-858. (pdf) 

Berv JS, and Prum RO (2014), A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 81, 120-136. (abstract)

Berv JS, Campagna L, Feo TJ, Castro-Astor I, Ribas CC, Prum RO, and Lovette IJ (2021), Genomic phylogeography of the White-crowned Manakin Pseudopipra pipra (Aves: Pipridae) illuminates a continental-scale radiation out of the Andes, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 164, e:107205. (pdf) 

Brady SS, Moyle RG, Joseph L, and Andersen MJ (2022), Systematics and biogeography of the whistlers (Aves: Pachycephalidae) inferred from ultraconserved elements and ancestral area reconstruction, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 168, e:107379. (abstract)

Bravo GA, Whitney BM, Belmonte-Lopes R, Bornschein MR, Aristizábal N, Beco R, Battilana J, Naka LN, Aleixo A, Pie MR, Silveira LF, Derryberry EP, and Brumfield RT (2021), Phylogenomic analyses reveal non-monophyly of the antbird genera Herpsilochmus and Sakesphorus (Thamnophilidae), with description of a new genus for Herpsilochmus sellowi, Ornithology 138, e:ukab025. (free pdf) 

Brumfield RT, and Edwards SV (2007), Evolution into and out of the Andes: a Bayesian analysis of historical diversification in Thamnophilus antshrikes, Evolution 61, 346-367. (pdf)

Brumfield RT, Tello JG, Cheviron ZA, Carling MD, Crochet N, and Rosenberg KV (2007), Phylogenetic conservatism and antiquity of a tropical specialisation: Army-ant-following in the typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45, 1-13. (abstract) 

Bryson RW, Chaves J, Tilston Smith B, Miller MJ, Winker K, Pérez-Emán JL, and Klucka J (2014), Diversification across the New World within the ‚blue‘ cardinalids (Aves: Cardinalidae), J. Biogeogr. 41, 587-599. (free pdf)

Buainain N, Maximiano MFA, Ferreira M, Aleixo A, Faircloth BC, Brumfield RT, Cracraft J, and Ribas CC (2021), Multiple species and deep genomic divergences despite little phenotypic differentiation in an ancient Neotropical songbird, Tunchiornis ochraceiceps (Sclater, 1860) (Aves: Vireonidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 162, e:107206. (abstract)

Burns KJ, Shultz AJ, Title PO, Mason NA, Barker FK, Klicka J, Lanyon SM, and Lovette IJ (2014), Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 75, 41-77. (abstract) 

Burns KJ, Unitt P, and Mason NA (2016), A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes), Zootaxa 4088, 329-354. (pdf)

Cadena CD, Cuervo AM, Céspedes LN, Bravo GA, Krabbe N, Schulenberg  TS, Derryberry GE, Silveira LF, Derryberry EP, Brumfield RT, and Fjeldså J (2021), Systematics, biogeography and diversification of Scytalopus tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae), an enigmatic radiation of Neotropical montane birds, Auk 137, e:ukz077. (pdf)

Cai T, Cibois A, Alström P, Moyle RG, Kennedy JD, Shao S, Zhang R, Irestedt M, Ericson PGP, Gelang M, Qu Y, Lei F, and Fjeldså J (2019), Near-complete phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the world’s babbler (Aves: Passeriformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130, 346-356. (abstract)

Cai T, Wu G, Sun L, Zhang Y, Peng Z, Guo Y, Liu X, Pan T, Chang J, Sun Z, and Zhang B (2021), Biogeography and diversification of Old World buntings (Aves: Emberizidae): radiations in open habitats, J. Avian Biol. 52, e:02672. (free reading) 

Campillo LC, Oliveros CH, Sheldon FH, and Moyle RG (2018), Genomic data resolve gene tree discordance in spiderhunters (Nectariniidae, Arachnothera), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 120, 151-157. (abstract)

Capurucho JMG, Ashley MV, Ribas CC, and Bates JM (2018), Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 127, 696-705. (abstract) 

Carneiro L, Bravo GA, Aristizábal N, Cuervo AM, and Aleixo A (2018), Molecular systematics and biogeography of lowland antpittas (Aves, Grallariidae): The role of vicariance and dispersal in the diversification of a widespread Neotropical lineage, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 120, 375-389. (abstract) 

Carter JK, Innes P, Goebl AM, Johnson B, Gebert M, Attia Z, Gabani Z, Li R, Melie T, Dart C, Mares A, Greidanus C, Paterson J, Wall B, Cortese G, Thirouin K, Glime G, Rutten J, Poyd C, Post E, Wall B, Elhadi AA, Feldmann K, Danz A, Blanchard T, Amato S, Reinert S, Pogoda CS, Scordato ESC, Hund AK, Safran RJ, and Kane NC (2020), Complete mitochondrial genomes provide current refined phylogenomic hypotheses for relationships among ten Hirundo species, Mitochondrial DNA B 5, 2881-85. (pdf)

Cerqueira PV, Santos MPD, and Aleixo A (2016), Phylogeography, inter-specific limits and diversification of Turdus ignobilis (Aves: Turdidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 97, 177-186. (abstract)

Chaves AV, Clozato CL, Lacerda DR, Sari EHR, and Santos FR (2008), Molecular taxonomy of Brazilian tyrant-flycatchers (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae), Mol. Ecol. Res. 8, 1169-77. (abstract)

Chesser RT (2004), Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32, 11-24. (abstract) 

Chesser RT, and ten Have J (2007), On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes: Menurae: Atrichornithidae), J. Ornithol. 148, 471-476. (abstract)

Chesser RT, Isler ML, Cuervo AM, Cadena D, Galen SC, Bergner LM, Fleischer RC, Bravo GA, Lane DF, and Hosner PA (2020), Conservative plumage masks extraordinary phylogenetic diversity in the Grallaria rufula (Rufous Antpitta) complex of the humid Andes, Auk 137, 1-25. (pdf) 

Chesser RT, Harvey MG, Brumfield RT, and Derryberry EP (2020), A revised classification of the Xolmiini (Aves: Tyrannidae: Fluvicolinae), including a new genus for Muscisaxicola fluviatilis, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 133, 35-48. (pdf) 

Christidis L, and Norman JA (2010), Evolution of the Australasian songbird fauna, Emu 110, 21-31. (abstract)

Cibois A, Gelang M, Alström P, Pasquet E, Fjeldså J, Ericson PGP, and Olsson U (2018), Comprehensive phylogeny of the laughingthrushes and allies (Aves, Leiotrichidae) and a proposal for a revised taxonomy, Zool. Scr. 47, 428-440. (pdf)

Cicero C, and Johnson NK (2001), Higher-level phylogeny of New World vireos (Aves: Vireonidae) based on sequences of multiple mitochondrial DNA genes, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 20, 27-40. (abstract) 

Cicero C, Mason NA, Benedict L, and Rising JD (2020), Behavioral, morphological, and ecological trait evolution in two clades of New World Sparrows (Aimophila and Peucaea, Passerellidae), PeerJ 8, e:9242. (free pdf)

Claramunt S, Derryberry EP, Brumfield RT, and Remsen JV (2012), Ecological opportunity and diversification in a continental radiation of birds: climbing adaptations and cladogenesis in the Furnariidae, Am. Nat. 179, 649-666. (abstract)

Cuervo AM, Stiles FG, Lentino M, Brumfield RT, and Derryberry EP (2014), Geographic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Myiopagis olallai (Aves: Passeriformes; Tyrannidae), with the description of two new taxa from the northern Andes, Zootaxa 3873, 1-24. (pdf)

DeCicco LH, DeRaad DA, Ostrow EN, and Moyle RG (2023), A complete species-level phylogeny of the Erythrura parrotfinches (Aves: Estrildidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 187, e:107883. (abstract) 

de Silva TN, Peterson AT, Bates JM, Fernando SW, and Girard MG (2017), Phylogenetic relationships of weaverbirds (Aves: Ploceidae): A first robust phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 109, 21-42. (abstract)

de Silva TN, Fernando SW, Robbins MB, Cooper JC, Fokam EB, and Peterson AT (2018), Recognition of a new generic-level swallow taxon from central Africa, J. Avian Biol. 49, 1-5. (free reading) 

de Silva TN, Peterson AT, and Perktas U (2019), An extensive molecular phylogeny of weaverbirds (Aves: Ploceidae) unveils broad nonmonophyly of traditional genera and new relationships, Auk 136, e:ukz041. (free pdf)

Dor R, Safran RJ, Sheldon FH, Winkler DW, and Lovette IJ (2010), Phylogeny of the genus Hirundo and the Barn Swallow subspecies complex, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 56, 409-418. (abstract)

Driskell AC, Norman JA, Pruett-Jones S, Mangall E, Sonsthagen S, and Christidis L (2011), A multigene phylogeny examining evolutionary and ecological relationships in the Australo-Papuan wrens of the subfamily Malurinae (Aves), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 60, 480-485. (abstract)

DuBay SG, and Witt CC (2012), An improved phylogeny of the Andean tit-tyrants (Aves: Tyrannidae): more characters trump sophisticated analyses, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64, 285-296. (abstract) 

Ericson PGP, Christidis L, Irestedt M, and Norman JA (2002), Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes: Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 25, 53-62. (pdf)

Ericson PGP, and Johansson US (2003), Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 29, 126-138. (abstract) 

Ericson PGP, Zuccon D, Ohlson JI, Johansson US, Alvarenga A, and Prum RO (2006), Higher-level phylogeny and morphological evolution of tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins and their allies (Aves: Tyrannida), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40, 471-483. (abstract)

Ericson PGP, Klopfstein S, Irestedt M, Nguyen JMT, and Nylander JAA (2014), Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Passeriformes (Aves), BMC Evol. Biol. 14, e:8. (free pdf)

Ericson PGP, Irestedt M, Nylander JAA, Christidis L, Joseph L, and Qu Y (2020), Parallel evolution of bower-building behavior in two groups of bowerbirds suggested by phylogenomics, Syst. Biol. 69, 820-829. (pdf) 

Escalante P, Márquez-Valdelamar L, de la Torre P, Laclette JP, and Klicka J (2009), Evolutionary history of a prominent North American warbler clade: The Oporornis-Geothlypis complex, Mol. Phylogenet, Evol. 53, 668-678. (abstract) 

Everson KM, McLaughlin JF, Cato IA, Evans MM, Gastaldi AR, Mills KK, Shink KG, Wilbur SM, and Winker K (2019), Speciation, gene flow, and seasonal migration in Catharus thrushes (Aves: Turdidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 139, e:106564. (abstract) 

Ewen JG, Flux I, and Ericson PGP (2006), Systematic affinities of two enigmatic New Zealand passerines of high conservation priority, the hihi or stitchbird Notiomystis cincta and the kokako Callaeas cinerea, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40, 281-284. (abstract) 

Fabre PH, Irestedt M, Fjeldså J, Bristol R, Groombridge JJ, Irham M, and Jønsson KA (2012), Dynamic colonization exchanges between continents and islands drive diversification in paradise-flycatchers (Terpsiphone, Monarchidae), J, Biogeogr. 39, 1900-18. (abstract) 

Farrington HL, Lawson LP, Clark CM, and Petren K (2014), The evolutionary history of Darwin‘s Finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape, Evolution 68, 2932-44. (pdf)

Fjeldså J, Zuccon D, Irestedt M, Johansson US, and Ericson PGP (2003), Sapayoa aenigma: a New World representative of ‘Old World suboscines’, Proc. R. Soc. B (Suppl.) 270, S238-S241. (pdf)

Fjeldså J, Irestedt M, and Ericson PGP (2005), Molecular data reveal some major adaptational shifts in the early evolution of the most diverse avian family, the Furnariidae, J. Ornithol. 146, 1-13. (abstract) 

Fjeldså J, Irestedt M, Ericson PGP, and Zuccon D (2010), The Cinnamon Ibon Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus is a forest canopy sparrow, Ibis 152, 747-760. (abstract)

Fjeldså J, Ohlson JI, Batalha Filho H, Ericson PGP, and Irestedt M (2018), Rapid expansion and diversification into new niche space by fluvicoline flycatchers, J. Avian Biol. 49, e:01661. (free reading)

Fregin S, Haase M, and Olsson U, and Alström P (2009), Multi-locus phylogeny of the family Acrocephalidae (Aves: Passeriformes) – The traditional taxonomy overthrown, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 866-878. (abstract)

Fregin S, Haase M, Olsson U, and Alström P (2012), New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers, BMC Evol. Biol. 12, e:157. (free pdf)

Fuchs J, Fjeldså J, Bowie RCK, Voelker G, and Pasquet E (2006), The African warbler genus Hyliota as a lost lineage in the Oscine songbird tree: Molecular support for an African origin of the Passerida, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 39, 186-197. (abstract)

Fuchs J, Pasquet E, Couloux A, Fjeldså J, and Bowie RCK (2009), A new Indo-Malayan member of the Stenostiridae (Aves: Passeriformes) revealed by multilocus sequence data: biogeographical implications for a morphologically diverse clade of flycatchers, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 53, 384-393. (abstract)

Fuchs J, Pasquet E, Stuart BL, Woxvold IA, Duckworth JW, and Bowie RCK (2018), Phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon with description of a new genus, Ibis 160, 659-665. (abstract)

Garg KM, Yin Gwee C, Chattopadhyay B, Ng NS, Prawiradilaga DM, David G, Fuchs J, Le Manh H, Martinez J, Olsson U, Tan Tu V, Chhin S, Alström P, Lei F, and Rheindt FE (2024), When colors mislead: genomics and bioacoustics prompt re-classification of Asian flycatcher radiation (Aves: Niltavinae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 193, e:107999. (abstract)

Gaudin J, Raty L, and Sangster G (2021), The correct name of the antpitta clade, Bull. B.O.C. 141, 363-365. (pdf) 

Gelang M, Cibois A, Pasquet E, Olsson U, Alström P, and Ericson PGP (2009), Phylogeny of babblers (Aves: Passeriformes): major lineages, family limits and classification, Zool. Scr. 38, 225-236. (abstract) 

Ghorbani F, Aliabadian M, Olsson U, Donald PF, Khan AA, and Alström P (2019), Mitochondrial phylogeography of the genus Eremophila confirms underestimated species diversity in the Palearctic, J. Ornithol. 161, 297-312. (abstract)

Gutiérrez-Zuluaga AM, González-Quevedo C, Oswald JA, Terrill RS, Pérez-Emán JL, and Parra JL (2021), Genetic data and niche differences suggest that disjunct populations of Diglossa brunneiventris are not sister taxa, Auk 138, 1-14. (free pdf) 

Gwee CY, Garg KM, Chattopadhyay B, Sadanandan KR, Prawiradilaga DM, Irestedt M, Lei F, Bloch LM, Lee JG, Irham M, Haryoko T, Soh MC, Peh KSH, Rowe KM, Ferasyi TR, Wu S, Wogan GO, Bowie RC, and Rheindt FE (2020), Phylogenomics of white-eyes, a ‘great speciator’, reveals Indonesian archipelago as the center of lineage diversity, eLife 9, e:62765. (free pdf)

Harvey MG, Bravo GA, Claramunt S, Cuervo AM, Derryberry GE, Battilana J, Seeholzer GF, McKay JS, O'Meara BC, Faircloth BC, Edwards SV, Perez-Eman J, Moyle RG, Sheldon FH, Aleixo A, Smith BT, Chesser RT, Silveira LF, Cracraft J, Brumfield RT, and Derryberry EP (2020), The evolution of a tropical biodiversity hotspot, Science 370, 1343-48. (pdf) (hi-res tree) 

Hermansen JS, Sæther SA, Elgvin TO, Borge T, Hjelle E, and Sætre GP (2011), Hybrid speciation in sparrows I: phenotypic intermediacy, genetic admixture and barriers to gene flow, Mol. Ecol 20, 3812-22. (abstract) 

Hooper DM, Olsson U, and Alström P (2016), The Rusty-tailed Flycatcher (Muscicapa ruficauda; Aves: Muscicapidae) is a member of the genus Fidecula, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 102, 56-61. (abstract)

Hosner PA, and Moyle RG (2012), A molecular phylogeny of black-tyrants (Tyrannidae: Knipolegus) reveals strong geographic patterns and homoplasy in plumage and display behavior, Auk 129, 156-167. (free pdf) 

Illera JC, Richardson DS, Helm B, Atienza JC, and Emerson BC (2008), Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography and speciation in the avian genus Saxicola, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 48, 1145-54. (abstract)

Imfeld TS, Barker FK, Vázquez-Miranda H, Chaves JA, Escalante P, Spellman GM, and Klicka J (2024), Diversification and dispersal in the Americas revealed by new phylogenies of the wrens and allies (Passeriformes: Certhioidea), Ornithology 141, (abstract)

Irestedt M, Fjeldså J, Nylander JAA, and Ericson PGP (2004), Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors, BMC Evol. Biol. 4, e:23. (free pdf) 

Irestedt M, Ohlson JI, Zuccon D, Källersjö M, and Ericson PGP (2006), Nuclear DNA from old collections of avian study skins reveals the evolutionary history of the New World suboscines (Aves, Passeriformes), Zool. Scr. 35, 567-580. (abstract)

Isler ML, Bravo GA, and Brumfield RT (2013), Taxonomic revision of Myrmeciza (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) into 12 genera based on phylogenetic, morphological, behavioral, and ecological data, Zootaxa 3717, 469-497. (free pdf)

Isler ML, Bravo GA, and Brumfield RT (2014), Systematics of the obligate ant-following clade of antbirds (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae), Wilson J. Ornithol. 126, 635-648. (pdf)

Isler ML, Chesser RT, Robbins MB, Cuervo AM, Cadena CD, and Hosner PA (2020), Taxonomic evaluation of the Grallaria rufula (Rufous Antpitta) complex (Aves: Passeriformes: Grallariidae) distinguishes sixteen species, Zootaxa 4817, 1-74. (abstract)

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Miyaki Y, and Piacentini VQ (2024), Taxonomic revision of the Scaled Antbird Drymophila squamata (Aves: Thamnophilidae) reveals a new and critically endangered taxon from northeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 5410, 573-585. (abstract)

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Rubin CJ, Enbody ED, Dobreva MP, Abzhanov A, Davis BW, Lamichhaney S, Pettersson M, Sendell-Price AT, Sprehn CG, Valle CA, Vasco K, Wallerman O, Grant BR, Grant PR, and Andersson L (2022), Rapid adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches depends on ancestral genetic modules, Sci. Adv. 8, e:eabm5982. (pdf)

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Sanín C, Cadena CD, Maley JM, Lijtmaer DA, Tubaro PL, and Chesser RT (2009), Paraphyly of Cinclodes  fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 53, 547-555. (pdf)

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Blue-faced Honeyeater (Entomyzon cyanotis), Meliphagidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Montezuma Oropendula (Psarocolius montezuma), Icteridae

White-eared Catbird (Ailuroedus buccoides), Ptilonorhynchidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida), Pittidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), male, Cotingidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae), Estrildidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), Tyrannidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Chestnut-backed Thrush (Geokichla dohertyi), Turdidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Black-and-white Mannikin (Lonchura bicolor), Estrildidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), female, Cotingidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius), Thraupidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)

Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis), Thraupidae (Foto: Carolin Pfeiffer)