This order, the parrots, comprises the following families: 

  • Psittacidae (African and American Parrots)
  • Psittrichasidae (Vasa Parrots and Pesquet's Parrot)
  • Psittaculidae (Old World Parrots)
  • Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)
  • Strigopidae (New Zealand Parrots) 

Timetree of Psittaciformes, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). The phylogeny is based on Provost et al. (2018), while the dating is based on the combined results of Rheindt et al. (2014), Schweizer et al. (2011, 2013, 2015),  White et al. (2011), and Kuhl et al. (2020). 


Timetree of Psittaculidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). The phylogeny is based on Provost et al. (2018), while the dating is based on the combined results of Schweizer et al. (2011, 2013, 2015). The phylogenetic relationships among Loriinae is based on Smith et al. (2018).  



Braun, M.P., T. Datzmann, T. Arndt, M. Reinschmidt, H. Schnitker, N. Bahr, H. Sauer-Gürth, and M. Wink (2019), A molecular phylogeny for the genus

Psittacula sensu lato (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Psittacula, Psittinus, Tanygnathus, Mascarinus), Zootaxa 4563.3.8, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4563.3.8. (abstract)

Burgio, K.R, K.E. Davis, L.M. Dreiss, L.M. Cisneros, B.T. Klingbeil, S.J. Presley, and M.R. Willig (2019), Phylogenetic supertree and functional trait

database for all extant parrots, Data in brief 24, DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.103882. (pdf)

Joseph, L., A. Toon, E.E. Schirtzinger, T.F. Wright, and R. Schodde (2012), A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots

(Psittaciformes), Zootaxa 3205, 26-40. (pdf)

Kundu, S., C.G. Jones, R.P. Prys-Jones, and J.J. Groombridge (2012), The Evolution of the Indian Ocean parrots (Psittaciformes): extinction, adaptive

radiation and eustacy, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 62, 296-305. (abstract)

Lima, N.C.B. et al., (2018), Comparative mitogenomic analyzes of Amazona parrots and Psittaciformes, Genet. Mol. Biol. 41(3). (pdf)

Liu, H., Y. Yang, N. Xu, R. Chen, Z. Fu, and Z. Huang (2019), Characterization and comparison of complete mitogenomes of three parrot

species (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 4:1, 1851-1852, DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2019.1613187. (pdf)

Provost, K.L., L. Joseph, and B.T. Smith (2018), Resolving a phylogenetic hypothesis for parrots: implications from systematics to conservation, Emu -

Austral Ornithology, 118:1, 7-21, DOI: 10.1080/01584197.2017.1387030, (abstract)

Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv3, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using

targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-573. (abstract)

Rheindt, F.E., L. Christidis, S. Kuhn, S. de Kloet, A. Normann, and A. Fiedler (2014), The timing and diversification within the most divergent parrot clade. J.

Avian Biol. 45, 140-148. (abstract)

Schirtzinger, E.E., E.S. Tavares, L.A. Gonzales, J.R. Eberhard, C.Y. Miyaki, J.J. Sanchez, A. Hernandez, H. Müeller, G.R. Graves, R.C. Fleischer, and T.F.

Wright (2012), Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications in the order Psittaciformes, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64, 342-356. (pdf)

Schweizer, M., M. Güntert, O. Seehausen, S.T. Hertwig (2010), The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-

oceanic dispersal events and local radiations, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 54, 984-994. (abstract)

Schweizer, M., M. Güntert, and S.T. Hertwig (2013), Out of the Bassian province: historical biogeography of the Australasian platycercine parrots (Aves,

Psittaciformes), Zool. Scripta 42, 13-27. (abstract)

Schweizer, M., T.F. Wright, J.V. Peñalba, E.E. Schirtzinger, and L. Joseph (2015), Molecular phylogenetics suggests a New Guinean origin and frequent

episodes of founder-event speciation in the nectarivorous lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 90, 34-48. (abstract)

Smith, B.T., W.M. Mauck, B. Benz, and M.J. Andersen (2018), Uneven missing data skews phylogenetic relationships within lories and lorikeets, bioRxiv. (pdf)

Tavares, E.S., A.J. Baker, S.L. Pereira, and C.Y. Miyaki (2006), Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots

(Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, Syst. Biol. 55, 454-470. (pdf)

White, N.E., M.J. Phillips, M.T.P. Gilbert, A. Alfaro-Núñ ez, E. Willerslev, P.R. Mawson, P.B.S. Spencer, and M.Bunce (2011), The evolutionary history of

cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 59, 615-622. (abstract)

Wright, T.F., E.E. Schirtzinger, T. Matsumoto, J.R. Eberhard, G.R. Graves, J.J. Sanchez, S. Capelli, H. Müller, J. Scharpegge, G.K. Chambers, and R.C.

Fleischer (2008), A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): support for a Gondwanan origin during the Cretaceous, Mol. Bio. Evol. 25, 2141-2156. (pdf)