This order, the parrots, comprises the following families: 

  • Psittacidae (African and American Parrots)
  • Psittrichasidae (Vasa Parrots and Pesquet's Parrot)
  • Psittaculidae (Old World Parrots)
  • Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)
  • Strigopidae (New Zealand Parrots) 

Timetree of extant Psittaciformes, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). The phylogeny is based on Provost et al. (2018), while the dating is based on the combined results of Rheindt et al. (2014), Schweizer et al. (2011, 2013, 2015),  White et al. (2011), and Kuhl et al. (2021). 


Timetree of extant Psittaculidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). The phylogeny is based on Provost et al. (2018), while the dating is based on the combined results of Schweizer et al. (2011, 2013, 2015). The phylogenetic relationships among Loriinae is based on Smith et al. (2018).      


Braun MP, Datzmann T, Arndt T, Reinschmidt M, Schnitker H, Bahr N, Sauer-Gürth H, and Wink M (2019), A molecular phylogeny for the genus Psittacula sensu lato (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Psittacula, Psittinus, Tanygnathus, Mascarinus), Zootaxa 4563.3.8. (abstract)


Burgio KR, Davis KE, Dreiss LM, Cisneros LM, Klingbeil BT, Presley SL, and Willig MR (2019), Phylogenetic supertree and functional trait database for all extant parrots, Data in brief 24. (pdf)


Joseph L, Toon A, Schirtzinger EE, Wright TF, and Schodde R (2012), A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes), Zootaxa 3205, 26-40. (pdf)


Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38 (1), 108-127(pdf)


Kundu S, Jones CG, Prys-Jones RP, and Groombridge JJ (2012), The Evolution of the Indian Ocean parrots (Psittaciformes): extinction, adaptive radiation and eustacy, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 62, 296-305. (abstract)


Lima NCB et al., (2018), Comparative mitogenomic analyzes of Amazona parrots and Psittaciformes, Genet. Mol. Biol. 41 (3). (pdf)


Liu H, Yang Y, Xu N, Chen R, Fu Z, and Huang Z (2019), Characterization and comparison of complete mitogenomes of three parrot species (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 4 (1), 1851-1852. (pdf)


Provost KL, Joseph L, and Smith BT (2018), Resolving a phylogenetic hypothesis for parrots: implications from systematics to conservation, Emu - Austral Ornithology 118 (1), 7-21. (abstract)


Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, and Lemmon AR (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted 

next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-573. (abstract)


Rheindt FE, Christidis L, Kuhn S, de Kloet S, Normann A, and Fiedler A (2014), The timing and diversification within the most divergent parrot clade. J. Avian Biol. 45, 140-148. (abstract)


Schirtzinger EE, Tavares ES, Gonzales LA, Eberhard JR, Miyaki CY, Sanchez JJ, Hernandez A, Müeller H, Graves GR, Fleischer RC, and Wright TF (2012), Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications in the order Psittaciformes, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64, 342-356. (pdf)


Schweizer M, Güntert M, Seehausen O, and Hertwig ST (2010), The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 54, 984-994. (abstract)


Schweizer M, Güntert M, and Hertwig ST (2013), Out of the Bassian province: historical biogeography of the Australasian platycercine parrots (Aves,  Psittaciformes), Zool. Scripta 42, 13-27. (abstract)


Schweizer M, Wright TF, Peñalba JV, Schirtzinger EE, and Joseph L (2015), Molecular phylogenetics suggests a New Guinean origin and frequent episodes 

of founder-event speciation in the nectarivorous lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 90, 34-48. (abstract)


Smith BT, Mauck WM, Benz B, and Andersen MJ (2018), Uneven missing data skews phylogenetic relationships within lories and lorikeets, bioRxiv. (pdf)


Tavares ES, Baker AJ, Pereira SL, and Miyaki CY (2006), Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, Syst. Biol. 55, 454-470. (pdf)


White NE, Phillips MJ, Gilbert MTP, Alfaro-Núñez A, Willerslev E, Mawson PR, Spencer PBS, and Bunce M (2011), The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 59, 615-622. (abstract)


Wright TF, Schirtzinger EE, Matsumoto T, Eberhard JR, Graves GR, Sanchez JJ, Capelli S, Müller H, Scharpegge J, Chambers GK, and Fleischer RC (2008), A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): support for a Gondwanan origin during the Cretaceous, Mol. Bio. Evol. 25, 2141-2156. (pdf)