This superorder contains the following orders:

Family-level timetree of extant Columbimorphae with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour code used throughout this website (Distribution code). The timetree follows Wu et al. (2024). The name Columbimorphae was introduced by Cracraft (2013).


Cracraft J (2013), Avian higher-level relationships and classification: Non-passerines, In: The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World (Dickinson EC & Remsen JV, eds.), Aves Press, Eastbourne, UK, 4th edition, xxi-xlii. (link)

Jarvis ED, Mirarab S, Aberer AA, et al. (2014), Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds, Science 346, 1320-31. (pdf)

Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 108-127. (pdf)

Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, and Lemmon AR (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-57. (abstract)

Sangster G, Braun EL, Johansson US, Kimball RT, Mayr G, and Suh A (2022), Phylogenetic definitions for 25 higher-level clade names of birds, Avian Res. 13, e:100027. (free reading)

Wu S, Rheindt FE, Zhang J, Wang J, Zhang L, Quan C, Li Z, Wang M, Wu F, Qu Y, Edwards SV, Zhou Z, and Liu L (2024), Genomes, fossils, and the concurrent rise of modern birds and flowering plants in the Late Cretaceous, PNAS 121. (pdf)