Family-level timetree of Galloanserae, with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). The relationships are based on Prum et al. (2015), and Kuhl et al. (2021). The divergence times
follow Kuhl et al. (2021).
Field DJ, Benito J, Chen A, Jagt JWM, and Ksepka DT (2020), Late Cretaceous neornithine from Europe illuminates the origins of crown birds, Nature 579, 397-401. (abstract)
Hosner PA, Faircloth BC, Glenn TC, Braun EL, and Kimball RT (2015), Avoiding missing data biases in phylogenomic inference: an empirical study in the landfowl (Aves: Galliformes), Mol. Biol. Evol. 33, 1110-1125. (pdf)
Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 108-127. (pdf)
Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, and Lemmon AR (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-57. (abstract)
Stein RW, Brown JW, and Mayr G (2015), A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves), Mol. Phyl. Evol. 92, 155-164. (abstract)