This order is restricted to the Spheniscidae (penguins).


Species-level timetree of extant Spheniscidae based on Fernandes et al. (2019) and Pan et al. (2019), with the distribution of each species being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). 


Cole TL, Rawlence NJ, Dussex N, Ellenberg U, Houston DM, Mattern T, Miskelly CM, Morrison KW, Scofield RP, Tennyson AJD, Thompson DR, Wood JR, and Waters JM,  (2019), Ancient DNA of crested penguins: testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world´s most diverse penguin clade. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 131, 72-79. (abstract)


Cole TL, Ksepka DT, Mitchell KJ, Tennyson AJD, Thomas DB, Pan H, Zhang G, Rawlence NJ, Wood JR, Boer P, Bouzat JL, CooperA, Fiddaman SR, Hart T, Miller G, Ryan PG, Shepherd LD, Wilmshurst JM, and Waters JM (2019), Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 36, 784-797. (pdf)


Fernandes FAN (2019), Evolutionary and biogeographic history of the extant penguins (Aves: Spheniscidae) using genomic data, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Campinas. (pdf) 


Pan H, Cole TL, Bi X, Fang M, Zhou C, Yang Z, Ksepka DT, Hart T, Bouzat JL, Argilla LS, Bertelsen MF, Boersman PD, Bost CA, Cherel Y, Dann P, Fiddaman SR, Howard P, Labuschagne K, Mattern T, Miller G, Parker P, Phillips RA, Quillfeldt P, Ryan PG, Taylor H, Thompson DR, Young MJ, Ellegaard MR, Gilbert MTP, Sinding MHS, Pacheco G, Shepherd LD, Tennyson AJD, Grosser S, Kay E, Nupen LJ, Ellenberg U, Houston DM, Hart A, Reeve, Johnson K, Masello JF, Stracke T, McKinlay B, García Borboroglu P, Zhang DX, and Zhang G (2019), High-coverage genomes to elucidate the evolution of penguins. GigaScience 8, 1-17.