Family-level timetree of extant Mirandornithes based on Jarvis et al. (2014), Prum et al. (2015), and Kuhl et al. (2021), with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code).
Jarvis ED, Mirarab S, Aberer AA, et al. (2014), Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern
birds, Science 346, 1320-1331. (pdf)
Kuhl H, Frankl-Vilches C, Bakker A, Mayr G, Nikolaus G, Boerno ST, Klages S, Timmermann B, and Gahr M (2021), An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 108-127. (pdf)
Mayr G (2004), Morphological evidence for sister group relationship between flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae) and grebes (Podicipedidae), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 140, 157-169. (pdf)
Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, and Lemmon AR (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-57. (abstract)
van Tuinen M, Butvill DB, Kirsch JAW, and Hedges SB (2001), Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268, 1345-1350. (pdf)