The superorder Strisores is represented only by the order Caprimulgiformes comprising the following families:
Timetree of Strisores based on Prum et al. (2015), White et al. (2019), Chen et al. (2019), Chen & Field (2020), and Kuhl et al. (2021), with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). Interfamiliar divergence times follow Kuhl et al. (2021).
Timetree of Apodidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). Intergeneric relationships are primarily based on Tietze et al. (2015). The position of the genus Neafrapus is based on Chesser et al. (2018). The position of the Panyptila/Tachornis/Aeronautes clade and the relationships of "Cypseloidinae" and Streptoprocninae are based on Biancalana et al. (2017). The divergence times follow McGuire et al. (2014).
Cladogram of Caprimulgidae according to the results of White et al. (2016), with the distribution of each family being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code).
Timetree of Trochilidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). Relationships are based on McGuire et al. (2014), with taxonomic changes within Polytminae based on Remsen et al. (2015). Three species (Anopetia gounellii, Hylonympha macrocerca, Sternoclyta cyanopectus) are stilled unplaced.
Timetree of the trochilid subfamily Trochilinae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution code). Relationships are based on McGuire et al. (2014), with taxonomic changes within Trochilini based on Stiles et al. (2017).
Andermann, T. et al. (2019), Allele phasing greatly improves the phylogenetic utility of ultraconserved elements, Syst. Biol. 68(1), 32-46. (pdf)
Chen, A., N.D. White, R.B.J. Benson, M.J. Braun, and D.J. Field (2019), Total-evidence framework reveals complex morphological evolution in nightbirds
(Strisores), Diversity 11, 143. DOI:10.3390/d11090143. (pdf)
Chen, A., and D.J. Field (2020), Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of
Phylogenetic Nomenclature, Vertebr. Zool. 70(4), 571-585, DOI: 10.26049/VZ70-4-2020-03. (pdf)
hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts
Cibois, A., J.C. Thibault, G. McCormack, and E. Pasquet (2018), Phylogenetic relationships of the Eastern Polynesian swiftlets (Aerodramus, Apodidae) and
Dumbacher, J.P.,T.K. Pratt, and R.C. Fleischer (2003), Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence, Mol.
Feo, T.J.,J.M. Musser, J. Berv, and C.J. Clark (2015), Divergence in morphology, calls, song, mechanical sounds, and genetics support species stautus for
Gruson, H., M. Elias, J.L. Parra, C. Andraud, S. Berthier, C. Doutrelant, and D. Gomez (2019), Distribution of iridescent colours in hummingbird
Hackett, S.J., R.T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R.C.K. Bowie, E.L. Braun, M.J. Braun, J.L. Chojnowski, W.A. Cox, K-L. Han, J. Harshman, C.J. Huddleston, B.D.
Marks, K.J. Miglia, W.S. Moore, F.H. Sheldon, D.W. Steadman, C.C. Witt, and T. Yuri (2008), A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history, Science 320, 1763-1767. (abstract)
Han, K.-L., M.B. Robbins, and M.J. Braun (2010), A multi-gene estimate of phylogeny in the nightjars and nighthawks (Caprimulgidae), Mol. Phylogenet.
Evol. 55, 443-453. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.023. (abstract)
Hernandez-Banos, B.E., L.E. Zamudio-Beltran, L.E. Eguiarte-Fruns, J. Klicka, and J. Garcia-Morena (2014), The Basilinna genus (Aves: Trochilidae): an
Hernandez-Banos, B.E., L.E. Zamudio-Beltran, and B. Mila (2020), Phylogenetic relationships and systematics of a subclade of Mesoamerican emerald
Kuhl, H., C. Frankl-Vilches, A. Bakker, G. Mayr, G. Nikolaus, S.T. Boerno, S. Klages, B. Timmermann, and M. Gahr (2021), An unbiased molecular
approach using 3'UTRs, resolves the avian family-level tree of life, Mol. Biol. Evol. 38(1), 108-127. msaa191. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msaa191. (pdf)
Licona-Vera, Y., and J.F. Ornelas (2019), The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migrating behavior in bee
Liu, G., L. Zhu, and G. Zhou (2019), Complete mitochondrial genomes of five raptors and implications for the phylogenetic relationships between owls and
nightjars, PeerJ Preprints | https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.27478v1 | (pdf)
McGuire, J.A., C.C. Witt, J.V. Remsen, Jr., A. Corl, D.L. Rabosky, D.L. Altshuler, and R. Dudley (2014), Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of
Päckert, M., J. Martens, M. Wink, A. Feigl, and D.T. Tietze (2012), Molecular phylogeny of Old World swifts (Aves: Apodiformes, Apodidae, Apus and
Price, J.J., K.P. Johnson, S.E. Bush, and D.molecular evidenceH. Clayton (2005), Phylogenetic relationships of the Papuan Swiftlet Aerodramus papuensis
Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using
targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-57. (abstract)
Quintero, E., and U. Perktas (2018), Phylogeny and biogeography of a subclade of mangoes (Aves: Trochilidae), J. Ornithol. 159, 29-46. (abstract)
Remsen, J.V., Jr., F.G. Stiles, and J.A.
McGuire (2015), Classification of the Polytminae (Aves: Trochilidae), Zootaxa 3957, 143-150.
Rheindt, F.E., J.A. Norman, and L. Christidis (2014), Extensive diverification across islands in the echolocating Aerodramus swiftlets, Raffles Bull. Zool. 62.
Rheindt, F.E., L. Christidis, J.A. Norman, J.A. Eaton, K.R.
Sadanandan, and R. Schodde (2017), Speciation in Indo-Pacific swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae):
Sangster, G. (2015), A name for the clade formed by owlet-nightjars,
swifts and hummingbirds. Zootaxa 799, 1-6. (pdf)
Sigurdsson, S., and J. Cracraft (2014), Deciphering the diversity and history of New World nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae) using molecular phylogenetics,
Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 170, 506-545. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12109. (abstract)
Stiles, F.G, J.V.J. , and J.V. Remsen (2017), A brief history of the generic classification of the Trochilini (Aves: Trochilidae): the chaos of the past and
Stiles, F.G, J.V.J. Remsen, and J.A. McGuire (2017), The generic classification of the Trochilini (Aves: Trochilidae): reconciling taxonomy with phylogeny,
Thomassen, H.A, A.T. Wiersema, M.A.G. de Bakker, P. de Knijff, E. Hetebrij, and G.D.E. Povel (2003), A new phylogeny of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)
Thomassen, H.A, R.-J. den Tex, M.A.G. de Bakker, and G.D.E. Povel (2005), Phylogenetic relationships amongst swifts and swiftlets: a multilocus
Tietze, D.T., M. Wink, and M. Päckert (2015), Does evolution of plumage patterns and of migratory behaviour in Apodini swifts (Aves: Apodiformes) follow
distributional range shifts? PeerJ PrePrints 3:e797v1. (pdf)
White, N.D., G.F. Barrowclough, J.G. Groth, and M.J. Braun (2016), A multi-gene estimate of higher-level phylogenetic relationships among nightjars,
Ornito. Neotrop. 27, 223-236. (pdf)
White, N.D., and M.J. Braun (2019), Extracting phylogenetic signal from phylogenomic data: Higher-level relationships of the nightbirds (Strisores). Mol.
Phylogenet. Evol. 141, 106611. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106611. (abstract)