This order comprises three families:
Timetree of Apodiformes, with the distribution of each taxon being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). Family interrelations are based on Prum et al. (2015).
Timetree of Apodidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). Intergeneric relationships are primarily based on Tietze et al. (2015). The position of the genus Neafrapus is based on Chesser et al. (2018). The position of the Panyptila/Tachornis/Aeronautes clade and the relationships of "Cypseloidinae" and Streptoprocninae are based on Biancalana et al. (2017).
Timetree of Trochilidae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). Relationships are based on McGuire et al. (2014), with taxonomic changes within Polytminae based on Remsen et al. (2015). Three species (Anopetia gounellii, Hylonympha macrocerca, Sternoclyta cyanopectus) are stilled unplaced.
Timetree of the trochilid subfamily Trochilinae, with the distribution of each genus being indicated by the colour-code used throughout this website (see Distribution colour code). Relationships are based on McGuire et al. (2014), with taxonomic changes within Trochilini based on Stiles et al. (2017).
hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts
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Feo, T.J.,J.M. Musser, J. Berv, and C.J. Clark (2015), Divergence in morphology, calls, song, mechanical sounds, and genetics support species stautus for
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Hernandez-Banos, B.E., L.E. Zamudio-Beltran, and B. Mila (2020), Phylogenetic relationships and systematics of a subclade of Mesoamerican emerald
Licona-Vera, Y., and J.F. Ornelas (2019), The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migrating behavior in bee
Liu, G., L. Zhu, and G. Zhou (2019), Complete mitochondrial genomes of five raptors and implications for the phylogenetic relationships between owls and
McGuire, J.A., C.C. Witt, J.V. Remsen, Jr., A. Corl, D.L. Rabosky, D.L. Altshuler, and R. Dudley (2014), Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of
Päckert, M., J. Martens, M. Wink, A. Feigl, and D.T. Tietze (2012), Molecular phylogeny of Old World swifts (Aves: Apodiformes, Apodidae, Apus and
Price, J.J., K.P. Johnson, S.E. Bush, and D.molecular evidenceH. Clayton (2005), Phylogenetic relationships of the Papuan Swiftlet Aerodramus papuensis
Prum, R.O., J.S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D.J. Field, J.P. Townsend, E.M. Lemmon, and A.R. Lemmon (2015), A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using
targeted next-generation DNA sequencing, Nature 526, 569-57. (abstract)
Quintero, E., and U. Perktas (2018), Phylogeny and biogeography of a subclade of mangoes (Aves: Trochilidae), J. Ornithol. 159, 29-46. (abstract)
Remsen, J.V., Jr., F.G. Stiles, and J.A. McGuire (2015), Classification
of the Polytminae (Aves: Trochilidae), Zootaxa 3957, 143-150.
Rheindt, F.E., J.A. Norman, and L. Christidis (2014), Extensive diverification across islands in the echolocating Aerodramus swiftlets, Raffles Bull. Zool. 62.
Rheindt, F.E., L. Christidis, J.A. Norman, J.A. Eaton,
K.R. Sadanandan, and R. Schodde (2017), Speciation in Indo-Pacific swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae):
Sangster, G. (2005), A name for the clade formed by owlet-nightjars, swifts and hummingbirds, Zootaxa 799(1), 1-6. DOI: .
Stiles, F.G, J.V.J. , and J.V. Remsen (2017), A brief history of the generic classification of the Trochilini (Aves: Trochilidae): the chaos of the past and
Stiles, F.G, J.V.J. Remsen, and J.A. McGuire (2017), The generic classification of the Trochilini (Aves: Trochilidae): reconciling taxonomy with phylogeny,
Thomassen, H.A, A.T. Wiersema, M.A.G. de Bakker, P. de Knijff, E. Hetebrij, and G.D.E. Povel (2003), A new phylogeny of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)
Thomassen, H.A, R.-J. den Tex, M.A.G. de Bakker, and G.D.E. Povel (2005), Phylogenetic relationships amongst swifts and swiftlets: a multilocus
Tietze, D.T., M. Wink, and M. Päckert (2015), Does evolution of plumage patterns and of migratory behaviour in Apodini swifts (Aves: Apodiformes) follow
distributional range shifts? PeerJ PrePrints 3:e797v1. (pdf)